Kali on a Chromebook with crouton

Kali Linux

What is Kali Linux and why do I want it on my Chromebook!

Kali is a Linux distribution that is widely accepted as the Linux distribution for penetration testers, security experts and hackers. It is the successor to Backtrack Linux. Kali allows the user to install packages such as aircrack-ng and reaver to collect data on and hack into wireless networks.

kali_dragon_by_humanlly-d61ax9j

How Do I Install Kali Linux on a Chromebook?

To install Kali on a Chromebook with crouton, the Chromebook must be in developer mode. please reference the following page to learn how to enter  developer mode.

Once in developer mode you need to download a special forked version of crouton. Kali has not yet been pulled into the master crouton project on github.

UPDATE: Kali has been added into the main crouton tree. You can download it here crouton.

Open the crosh terminal (CTLR+ALT+T).

enter shell mode by typing shell / enter.

from shell type sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali

-r is the release. We need to set this to Kali. If the -r switch is not passed Ubuntu will be installed.

-t is the target command that specifies what GUI interface you want installed by default. Gnome is the default unity for kali however it does not work on my HP Chromebook 14″. KDE works and is a  good alternative to Gnome.

-n is the name parameter. We define the -n switch here so we can give the chroot a custom name of kali.

As of this article I do not recommend gnome for the target gui on the HP Chromebook 14.

The process will run and install kali on the system.

at some point you will be prompted for a user name and password.

How Do I Run Kali Linux on a Chromebook?

Once the install is complete from the shell type sudo startkde.

this will start the Kali instance.

To transition seamlessly from chromeos and unity press CTRL+ALT+<=(backward) for chromeos and CTRL+ALT+=>(forward).

if the machine is rebooted you will have to enter shell and type sudo startkde again.

Endless Possibilities:

it is possible to install multiple chroots.

Click to learn how to install Ubuntu

Click to learn how to install Debian

67 thoughts on “Kali on a Chromebook with crouton

  1. Nice work, interesting.
    However, Kali is NOT a predecessor to Backtrack, it is the SUCCESSOR to Backtrack.
    Thanks nonetheless.

  2. So, I followed the instructions here, and after the installation completed, the terminal wouldn’t accept the “sudo startkali” command, and instead told me that I had to use “sudo startkde” instead. The result was a pretty dramatically different interface than what I’ve seen for Kali and the logo/tools that come with the distro are nowhere to be found. Anybody know what happened?
    Thank you!

    • I believe by default Kali installs with GNOME . I couldn’t get GNOME to work with the HP Chromebook ( I Didn’t really spend allot of time on this issue). As a quick resolution I opted for KDE instead. This is probably why you see the dramatic difference with the GUI. I also Noticed that not all of the Pen testing tools were available after install. I haven’t re-visited this issue but I know that the Kali fork of the crouton script was pulled into the master Crouton stream not to long ago. Im not sure if this will solve your problem bu here is the link to the master crouton script https://github.com/dnschneid/crouton (no guarantees ) . On the “sudo startkali” issue. This is my mistake (I misunderstood the usage of the -n switch) and I will correct the post.
      Regards

    • Yo dude, you have to go on the google chrome store and download the crouton extension, that’s why it ain’t workin’ (Keep the crouton you downloaded)

  3. chronos@localhost / $
    chronos@localhost / $ sudo sh -e ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali

    We trust you have received the usual lecture from the local System
    Administrator. It usually boils down to these three things:

    #1) Respect the privacy of others.
    #2) Think before you type.
    #3) With great power comes great responsibility.

    WARNING: Signed boot verification is disabled; enabling it for security.
    You can disable it again using: sudo crossystem dev_boot_signed_only=0
    Installing kali-armhf chroot to /usr/local/chroots/kali
    Downloading latest debootstrap…
    2014-03-11 08:31:33 URL:http://anonscm.debian.org/gitweb/?p=d-i/debootstrap.git;a=snapshot;h=HEAD;sf=tgz [59802] -> “-” [1]
    Downloading bootstrap files…
    W: Cannot check Release signature; keyring file not available /usr/share/keyrings/debian-archive-keyring.gpg
    I: Retrieving Release
    E: Invalid Release file, no valid components
    how do you fix this?

  4. When I enter “sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali” it says “crouton must be run as root”. Any ideas?

  5. If I install multiple chroots how does switching around work? Has anyone tried to install multiple chroots?

    • starting them works the same, You can start multiples.
      I.E. sudo startunity
      sudo startkali

      If multiple are running You use the CTRL + => to enter the first chroot(Unity) and CTRL + [REFRESH] for the second chroot(Kali).

      If you start a third chroot, I believe you would use CTRL + [FULL SCREEN].

      I have not had more than two running at the same time.

      Regards,

    • use -u at the end of the command
      like so:
      sudo sh -e ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali -u

      that should work, it worked for me at least, I have kde, and unity running right now.

  6. Hey, I installed it but it doesn’t contains
    all the ”hacking tools”…
    how do i get them back?

    i’m using the ARM samsung chromebook

  7. chronos@localhost / $ sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    crouton must be run as root.
    chronos@localhost / $

    what to do???

  8. I followed the instructions but when I try to run aircrack or its functions it says that they are not installed. What am I doing wrong?

    • I believe the crouton script installs the kali minimum distro.
      You can install the aircrack utils with the following command “sudo apt-get install aircrack-ng”

  9. Hello Amigo,
    Thank you for sharing , I am trying to run this Kali on my samsung chromebook 4GB of memory ram . Intel Inside , Here is what I get

    Hello thanks for sharing.
    this is what I get
    sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    Installing kali-amd64 chroot to /usr/local/chroots/kali
    Downloading latest debootstrap…
    Download from Debian gitweb failed. Trying latest release…
    2014-06-23 04:26:40 URL:http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/d/debootstrap/ [4417/4417] -> “-” [1]
    Downloading debootstrap version 1.0.60…
    2014-06-23 04:26:41 URL:http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/d/debootstrap/debootstrap_1.0.60.tar.xz [49612/49612] -> “-” [1]
    Downloading bootstrap files…
    W: Cannot check Release signature; keyring file not available /usr/share/keyrings/debian-archive-keyring.gpg
    I: Retrieving Release
    E: Failed getting release file http://http.kali.org/dists/stable/Release

  10. Everytime I try to install Kali i get the message:

    unable to flush /var/lib/dpkg/updates/tmp.i after padding: No space left on device
    E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (2)
    Failed to complete chroot setup

    The Chromebook was formated instant before setup.

    Has somebody an Idea what I could do?

    • I found a Solution:

      I just had to reinstall the Chromebook with an old (so also smaller) Factory Image i had on an SD-Card.

      Now there was enough Space :)

  11. I got it all the to crosh and I typed it into the command and it said

    chronos@localhost / $ sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    Downloading latest crouton installer…
    ######################################################################## 100.0%
    crouton must be run as root.

  12. If the version of Kali installed using Crouton has no control over the wireless card I connect via a usb (Alfa AWUS036NHA) what use is it? Even the command iwconfig does not work (I get a response “command not found”) in the version I have installed following your instructions. I was hoping to use this as a way to experiment with pentesting but I am unable to do anything.
    Any help would be much appreciated!
    Thank you in advance.

      • I’m running ubuntu with crouton and iwconfig doesn’t work for me either, but sudo /sbin/ifconfig just did. What does this mean? What’s the difference? If I’d like to do other things with my wifi (like find the channels that all the other networks are running on) what kinds of equivalent commands can I use, since sudo iwlist wlan0 scan | grep \(Channel does not work for me.

        Thanks. I’d love to learn this a little better.

  13. I have an issue when playing around with arpspoof and sslstrip, and im wondering if anyone else has this problem…

    iptables REDIRECT chain is not compiled in the kernel.

    running “iptables -t filter -L” lists a few chains, but not the REDIRECT which is needed for redirecting traffic in MitM attacks. How do i go about enabling this chain?

    btw, im running Kali on an ACER C720…

    thank you for your attention.

  14. chronos@localhost / $ chronos@localhost / $ sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    bash: chronos@localhost: command not found
    chronos@localhost / $ /usr/local/chroots/kali already has stuff in it!
    bash: /usr/local/chroots/kali: Is a directory
    chronos@localhost / $ Either delete it, specify a different name (-n), or specify -u to update it.

    What do i do, please help me :(

  15. Every time I try to install a chroot for kali I get this error when I try to start it, does anyone have any idea what is going on or how i can fix it.

    sudo startkde
    Password:
    Entering /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/kali…

    X.Org X Server 1.12.4
    Release Date: 2012-08-27
    X Protocol Version 11, Revision 0
    Build Operating System: Linux 3.16.0-4-amd64 x86_64 Debian
    Current Operating System: Linux localhost 3.8.11 #1 SMP Sat Mar 7 08:13:32 PST 2015 x86_64
    Kernel command line: cros_secure console= loglevel=7 init=/sbin/init cros_secure oops=panic panic=-1 root=PARTUUID=6154d663-af3a-8d41-bdb7-78222a9f49b3/PARTNROFF=1 rootwait rw dm_verity.error_behavior=3 dm_verity.max_bios=-1 dm_verity.dev_wait=0 dm=”1 vroot none ro 1,0 2506752 verity payload=ROOT_DEV hashtree=HASH_DEV hashstart=2506752 alg=sha1 root_hexdigest=638e8143e280ae4c6d681f646ce33e477b22cadb salt=b58a22c2b857c03dfa6b1d173d6af61b633aac3a211e177d5c6fe1acf6cf07d1″ noinitrd vt.global_cursor_default=0 kern_guid=6154d663-af3a-8d41-bdb7-78222a9f49b3 add_efi_memmap boot=local noresume noswap i915.modeset=1 tpm_tis.force=1 tpm_tis.interrupts=0 nmi_watchdog=panic,lapic iTCO_vendor_support.vendorsupport=3
    Build Date: 09 February 2015 09:46:52AM
    xorg-server 2:1.12.4-6+deb7u6 (Julien Cristau )
    Current version of pixman: 0.26.0
    Before reporting problems, check http://wiki.x.org
    to make sure that you have the latest version.
    Markers: (–) probed, (**) from config file, (==) default setting,
    (++) from command line, (!!) notice, (II) informational,
    (WW) warning, (EE) error, (NI) not implemented, (??) unknown.
    (==) Log file: “/var/log/Xorg.1.log”, Time: Mon Mar 23 16:05:08 2015
    (==) Using system config directory “/usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d”

    Fatal server error:
    no screens found

    Please consult the The X.Org Foundation support
    at http://wiki.x.org
    for help.
    Please also check the log file at “/var/log/Xorg.1.log” for additional information.

    Server terminated with error (1). Closing log file.
    /usr/bin/xinit: giving up
    /usr/bin/xinit: unable to connect to X server: Connection refused
    /usr/bin/xinit: server error
    Unmounting /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/kali…

  16. Cannot set a UNIX password, every time I try to enter anything I get no input to work except enter then I get an passwd: Authentication token manipulation error
    passwd: password unchanged

    But its was never set so I can’t enter anything in the current field, any help?

  17. I got Kali loaded and working and started playing with the tools, but it doesn’t appear that wireshark has access to any interfaces on my Chromebook. Is this something I need to change in permissions? Any suggestions?

  18. how would i do this on the sd card? i only have 4 gb left after the install and i want to install debian wheezy on the sd?

  19. I get the same error over and over how to fix it:
    chronos@localhost / $ sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    sh: can’t open /home/chronos/user/Downloads/crouton

    anyone got any idea’s????

  20. I’m using a Dell Chromebook 11, I installed the thing and it said “Done! use sudo startkde” and I did and then this happened “Entering /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/kali…

    X.Org X Server 1.12.4
    Release Date: 2012-08-27
    X Protocol Version 11, Revision 0
    Build Operating System: Linux 3.16.0-4-amd64 x86_64 Debian
    Current Operating System: Linux localhost 3.8.11 #1 SMP Tue Aug 25 03:43:00 PDT 2015 x86_64
    Kernel command line: cros_secure console= loglevel=7 init=/sbin/init cros_secure oops=panic panic=-1 root=/dev/dm-0 rootwait ro dm_verity.error_behavior=3 dm_verity.max_bios=-1 dm_verity.dev_wait=1 dm=”1 vroot none ro 1,0 2506752 verity payload=PARTUUID=0e2e529a-d841-6542-884b-678fc3e83d1a/PARTNROFF=1 hashtree=PARTUUID=0e2e529a-d841-6542-884b-678fc3e83d1a/PARTNROFF=1 hashstart=2506752 alg=sha1 root_hexdigest=d4401d4da3cdea7aebc9ef1bc9a715e908c3ee94 salt=0582f14097e013d1b218f152d4b19e191374a7322e434ef2d114e1a2f0bfda60″ noinitrd vt.global_cursor_default=0 kern_guid=0e2e529a-d841-6542-884b-678fc3e83d1a add_efi_memmap boot=local noresume noswap i915.modeset=1 tpm_tis.force=1 tpm_tis.interrupts=0 nmi_watchdog=panic,lapic
    Build Date: 09 February 2015 09:46:52AM
    xorg-server 2:1.12.4-6+deb7u6 (Julien Cristau )
    Current version of pixman: 0.26.0
    Before reporting problems, check http://wiki.x.org
    to make sure that you have the latest version.
    Markers: (–) probed, (**) from config file, (==) default setting,
    (++) from command line, (!!) notice, (II) informational,
    (WW) warning, (EE) error, (NI) not implemented, (??) unknown.
    (++) Log file: “/tmp/Xorg.crouton.1.log”, Time: Wed Sep 2 17:14:29 2015
    (++) Using config file: “/etc/X11/xorg-dummy.conf”
    (==) Using system config directory “/usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d”
    /usr/bin/xinit: XFree86_VT property unexpectedly has 0 items instead of 1
    crouton: version 1-20150827155505~master:edbce112
    release: kali
    architecture: amd64
    xmethod: xiwi
    targets: kde
    host: version 7390.1.0 (Official Build) dev-channel wolf
    kernel: Linux localhost 3.8.11 #1 SMP Tue Aug 25 03:43:00 PDT 2015 x86_64 GNU/Linux
    freon: yes
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Error: not connected.
    Cannot connect to extension, retrying…
    Unable to start display, make sure the crouton extension is installed
    and enabled, and up to date. (download from http://goo.gl/OVQOEt)
    Running exit commands…
    /usr/bin/xinit: connection to X server lost

    waiting for X server to shut down Hangup
    Hangup
    Hangup
    Server terminated successfully (0). Closing log file.

    Unmounting /mnt/stateful_partition/crouton/chroots/kali…”

    Any help is appretiated

  21. Installing kali-amd64 chroot to /usr/local/chroots/kali
    Downloading latest debootstrap…
    2015-11-01 10:24:17 URL:https://anonscm.debian.org/gitweb/?p=d-i/debootstrap.git;a=snapshot;h=HEAD;sf=tgz [62231] -> “-” [1]
    Patching debootstrap…
    Downloading bootstrap files…
    W: Cannot check Release signature; keyring file not available /usr/share/keyrings/debian-archive-keyring.gpg
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release

    i get this error please help me i am using Toshiba Chromebook 2

  22. every time I try to run it is says:
    sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    Downloading latest crouton installer…
    ######################################################################## 100.0%
    WARNING: kali is an unsupported release.
    You will likely run into issues, but things may work with some effort.
    Press Ctrl-C to abort; installation will continue in 5 seconds.
    Installing kali-amd64 chroot to /usr/local/chroots/kali
    Downloading latest debootstrap…
    2015-11-24 22:25:49 URL:https://anonscm.debian.org/gitweb/?p=d-i/debootstrap.git;a=snapshot;h=HEAD;sf=tgz [63296] -> “-” [1]
    Patching debootstrap…
    Downloading bootstrap files…
    W: Cannot check Release signature; keyring file not available /usr/share/keyrings/debian-archive-keyring.gpg
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    W: http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release was corrupt
    E: Failed getting release file http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release

    • It looks like Kali.org either changed its release structure or the crouton file changed to an incorrect structure. Try re-downloading and trying again. If it does not work try submitting a bug report to the github repository.

  23. im trying to install kali on my HP Chromebook, but i get the following message, do I need a specific crouton file?
    chronos@localhost / $ sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -r kali -t kde -n kali
    WARNING: kali is an unsupported release.
    You will likely run into issues, but things may work with some effort.
    Press Ctrl-C to abort; installation will continue in 5 seconds.
    WARNING: USB booting is enabled; consider disabling it.
    WARNING: Legacy booting is enabled; consider disabling it.
    WARNING: Signed boot verification is disabled; consider enabling it.
    You can use the following command: sudo crossystem dev_boot_usb=0 dev_boot_legacy=0 dev_boot_signed_only=1
    Installing kali-amd64 chroot to /usr/local/chroots/kali
    Downloading latest debootstrap…
    2015-12-30 03:33:45 URL:https://anonscm.debian.org/gitweb/?p=d-i/debootstrap.git;a=snapshot;h=HEAD;sf=tgz [63296] -> “-” [1]
    Patching debootstrap…
    Downloading bootstrap files…
    W: Cannot check Release signature; keyring file not available /usr/share/keyrings/debian-archive-keyring.gpg
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    I: Retrieving Release
    W: Retrying failed download of http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release
    W: http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release was corrupt
    E: Failed getting release file http://http.kali.org/dists/kali/Release

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